- Name : Prof. CH.Ratnam
- Designation : Director
Vision To create, establish and sustain a Nano Science and Technology Centre under CoE at AUCE . Mission A truly multidisciplinary character involving departments of Physics, Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering for Research & Development in both conventional and nano-materials, thin films and device applications. To create an experimental infrastructure, faculty- student impact, and a high quality of scientific and technological output, among the best in the country and the world within the first five years. Centre for nanotechnology is part of the faculty of engineering at Andhra University, at Andhra University College of Engineering , offers programs in nanotechnology at Masters level and doctoral levels. Centre for Nanotechnology established in the year 2001. Andhra University College of Engineering possesses a vision to foster the development of research and education in the multi-disciplinary area of nanotechnology by developing human resources gifted with leading-edge competitive technologies required for meeting the future challenges and augmenting academic partnerships with industry. The faculty of the Centre, drawn from different departments, is involved in developing state-of-the-art facilities at the institute and is actively involved in research in the area of nanotechnology. This centre is established under TEQIP Phase II CoE (Centre of Excellence) entitled“Challenges of Nanotechnology for 21st Century Generation: Indian perspective in global scenario” in the year 2012 with the following thematic areas: Multiscale Composites Nanolubricants & Machining PEM Fuel Cells Thinfilms
Methodology: A precursor is introduced into a reaction chamber and is controlled by balanced flow regulations and control valves. Precursor molecules pass by the substrate, are drawn into the boundary layer and are deposited on the substrate.
Specifications: Shell (alumina) size and useful volume 600mmx600mmx600mm and 200mmx70 mm Maximum temperature14000C Materials which can be prepared using these gases H2, Ar, and C2H2 Working temp range50C/ min - 100C/ min Operating Temperature12000C
Limitations: We can synthesize Carbon Clusters MWCNTs Thinfilm (SiO2, TiO2) Deposition onlyThermal/Flash Evaporation Methodology: In the thermal method, metal material (in the form of wire, pellets, shot) is fed onto heated semimetal (ceramic) evaporators known as "boats" due to their shape. A pool of melted metal forms in the boat cavity and evaporates into a cloud above the source. Alternatively the source material is placed in a crucible, which is radiatively heated by an electricfilament, or the source material may be hung from the filamentitself (filament evaporation).In flash evaporation, a fine wireof source material is fed continuously onto a hot ceramic bar,and evaporates on contact.Deposition of thin films with Metals using powders, pellets and 1mm thick wires. Ultimate Vacuum 2x 10-6 mbar. Specifications: Diffusion Pump-Ultimate vacuum-2.0X10-6m.bar Thickness Monitor (DTM)-Film thickness measuring 10Å Source-Powders and Pellets Substrate Heating -700⁰C Metallic Filaments Types- Wire Shape, Cone Shape, Rectangular boat (Mo, Tungsten) Limitations: Au, Ag, Al, Cr, Sn, Sb, Ge, In, Mg, Ga CdS, PbS, CdSe, NaCl, KCl, AgCl, MgF2, CaF2, PbCl2 areTypical Evaporators Melting pointLimitations of the sample should be 1800oC or more. DC/RF Magnetron Sputtering Methodology: DC Magnetron Sputtering: Using low chamber pressure to maintain high deposition rate. Using magnetic field to confine electrons near the target to sustain plasma. RF Sputtering: At low frequency (<100 KHz), both electrons and ions can follow the switching of the voltage. At high frequency (> 1 MHz), heave ions cannot no long follow the switching, ions are accelerated by dark-space (sheath) voltage, and electron neutralizes the positive charge build-up on both electrodes. However, there are two dark spaces. Sputter both target and substrate at different cycle. Larger dark-space voltage develops at the electrode with smaller area.Make target electrode small. Limitations: Thin Film deposition of Metals (Cu, Ni, Al, Ti, Sr, Zr, Sn and Graphite) and Metal Oxides( Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO3, SnO2, ITO, SrO3) by using High Purity Targets. Ultimate Vacuum 2x 10-6 mbar. Specifications: Sputtering Targets-2” Magnetron Target Size- 2 inch dia & 3mm thickness DC Magnetron Power Supply-50V to -1000V/1A RF Power Supply -300Watts DC supply-metals RF supply-Metals,Metal oxides, Substrate Heating -7000C Gases- Ar,O2 AFM (ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY) Description: Park XE7 provides accurate measurement at highest Nanoscale resolution than any other products in its class.It allows you to obtain sample images and its characteristic measurements true to its nano structure thanks toits flat, orthogonal, and linear scan measurements by its unique.AFM architecture: Independent XY and Z,flexure based scans. Furthermore, Park's unique True Non-Contact mode provides you with the sharpestimages, scan after scan without declining resolution. Characterize structures of the materials Morphology, Roughness, 3D Image, Grain Size, Surface Area, Spacing between grains. Limitations: Powder samples, Liquid samples and Biological samples can not be characerised using this AFM system. Indentation is not available. Specifications: Max. Sample size-100mmx100mmx20mm, 500gm Sample type-Film sample Stage Movement- 25mmx25mm (X-Y) manual, 27.5mm Z motorized X-Y Scanner Options- 50 µm Z Scanner Options- 15 µm AFM resolution Lateral: 0.1 nm & Vertical 0.01 nm Tip-Sample Viewing- Built-in on-axis Microscope (CCD camera, 10X objective 1 µm optical resolution) Modes- Contact, Tapping Magnification- 750x magnification, motorized optics Software- XEP Dedicated System Control and data acquisition software, XEI AFM Data analysis software. UV-VIS-NIR SPECTROPHOTOMETER Description: Characterize the properties for absorption and transmittance, Reflectance for liquid, solid Samples. Aqua based samples range, Near Infrared region (200-1200 nm) Specifications: Light source Deuterium Halogen lamp Wavelength range 210-400 nm 360-1500 nm Optic fiber cable 200µm Quartz optical fiber 2m length CUV-UV Cuvette holder for 1cm cuvette Limitations: UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy makes it possible to measure the different percentage of light reflected,transmitted or absorbed by the sample. Any diluted powder samples and liquid phase samples, Optical properties of photovoltaic cell of solid samples. LOW ENERGY BALL MILLING Description: This is used for the Nano-particles are synthesized through top down approach of any metals, Metal oxide particles and chemical compounds. Specifications: No. of jars-single jar R.P.M-650rpm Tungsten carbide Jars-50ml, 125ml Tungsten Carbide balls (3mm, 10mm,16mm) Zirconium Jars-50ml Zirconium balls (2mm, 3mm,10mm) Limitations: Low speed machine We need to give one hour rest for every 6hrs We give the program for one hour 10 min as idle time It required more time to obtain nano size particles Particles are braked through shearing action Contamination of the nano-particles is more. HIGHENERGY BALL MILLING Description: This Ball mill is used for the Nanoparticles are synthesized through top down approach of any metals, Metal oxide particles and chemical compounds. Soft materials like chemical composites grinding only with zirconium jars, zirconium balls. Specifications: No. of jars- Two jar R.P.M- 2000rpm Zirconium Jars- 125ml Zirconium balls (2mm, 3mm, 10mm) Tungsten Carbide Jars-125ml Tungsten Carbide balls (3mm, 10mm, 16mm) Applications: Zirconium Jars & same balls: Soft materials like red mud, rice husk. Tungsten Carbide Jars& balls: Used for hard materials like metals and metal oxides. Limitatons: Harder materials which are greater than the Jar materials can’t be used in the Jar. THIN FILM THICKNESS MEASUREMENT Description: F20 instruments are distinguished primarily by the thickness measurement range, which in turn is determined by the instrument's wavelength range. Analyzethin film coating thickness upto 3 nm-20µm and measure Refractive index. Light source Deuterium lamp upto UV region 400nm and halogen lamp above 400 nm upto infrared region 1150nm. Specifications: Thickness range:1 nm-40µm Thickness with Refractive index (n)& Dielectric constant (k) -500Åto 3µm Wavelength range- 190-1100nm Accuracy- The greater of 0.4% or 10Å Light Source- Deuterium & Halogen Lamps Limitations: Measure thickness of the deposited thin films on substrate. Thin film coating thickness and refractive index can be measured in less than a second. OPTICAL MICROSCOPE Description: This is mainly used to see the microscopic images of biological samples and metallurgical samples within the calibration range upto 0.001 mm Specifications: Model BA310 Digital Biological Microscope Objectives 4X to 40X CPS DISC Centrifuge PARTICLE SIZE ANALYZER Description: This is mainly used to measure Particle size to measure size and density of Nanomaterialsin range 20nm- 100 μm Specifications : Maximum Speed 18000 rpm Maximum measurable size range >40µm Minimum measurable size range <0.01µm MUFFLE FURNACE Description: This furnace used to heat treatment any metals, alloys and also used for calcinations of the oxide, etc. Specifications: Model-Carbolite Gero GPC13/36 Maximum Temperaturen-1400⁰C Size (lxbxh)-550mmx320mmx250mm PID Controller-8Ramps/Dwell pairs Limitations: Operating Temperture-1200-1300⁰C IMPACT TOUGHNESS TESTER Description: This is used for Tribological test by resistance to impact loads, materials which can be characterize by this instrument were ceramic tiles energy absorbed in joules.. Test Parameter REMARKS Spherical ball Mass of ball-1040 grams Material MS Specimen holder Size-410x400x200 mm, lxbxh Sand Type-Quartz AFS(50/70) Height of the sand in specimen holder 100 mm Volume-16000cm3 Wire rope Diameter-4mm Material steel cable SCRATCH TESTER Field of applications: Suitable for scratch testing of hard materials of metals , Ceramic and Composite Adhesion of coating on substrate. Features and benefits: Tester suitable to know the adhesion strength of coatings Acquire and display of normal load,Tractional force. Image acquisition system for capturing scar. Specimen clamping on vice Suitable for constant and ramp loading. Uni-directional scratching. Standard stylus replaceable with one of different geometry and material Multi scratch up to 5 scratches. Limitations: It is not intended to predict adhesion strength of coated/plated items having strength as substrate. Specifications: Normal load Load cell 1: 0 – 20 N Load cell 2: 20 – 200 N Loading rate Load cell 1: 0.1 – 2 N/mm in steps of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 & 2 N/mm Load cell 2: 0.2 – 20 N/mm in steps of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 N/mm Tractional force Load cell 1 : max 20 N Load cell 2 : max 200 N Scratching speed range 0.1 – 2 mm/sec Pitch 0-5mm, in steps of 0.2 mm Normal load Applied either in constant (or) ramp modes Stylus sliding Unidirectional Sample size Less than 60x60x10 mm Sample holding Mechanical vice Image acquisition system 5Mp, Max image size 3x4 mm Indenter Diamond Indenter Rockwell C with tip radius R200 µm Power supply: 230V, 50Hz, Single phase - 1kW. DRY ABRASION TEST Functions: The rig is used for determining resistance of metallic materials to scratching abrasion by means of dry sand/rubber wheel test.This procedure enables to predict the relative ranking of various materials. It is used for evaluating the rate of wear and ranking of materials. Features and benefits: Constant sand flow rate @ 360gm/min. Variable wheel speed between 20 to 200rpm insteps Easy to replace specimen. Suitable to conduct all five-test methods mentioned in ASTM G 65 standards. Specifications: Normal load Dead weight loading. Dead weights of 5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.3 kg -2 no’s & 4.0 kg Speed Variable speed in steps of 1rpm, max speed 200 rpm Load min 4.5 kg, max 13.25 kg Sand flow rate 360 gm/min Wheel Chlorobutyl rubber A-60, ø228.6×12.7 mm Specimen size 76×25.4×12.7 mm (l x b x h) Abrasive material AFS 50/70, Quartz sand Timer (Revolution counter) Max 999999 rev Initial load on specimen 2.4 kg Loading lever ratio 1:2.6 FFT ANALYZER Description: The PC interface gives access to instrument setup and to a wide range of noise and vibration analyses And the main advantage to find displacement, velocity and acceleration plug-in analyzers are added. The FFT plug-in features specific add-on for specialized analysis. NVGatePlatform NVGate platform provides a comprehensive set of tools for noise and vibration acquisition, recording andanalysis. These functions are arranged in 4 parts: Signal sources that condition provide and store time domain signals. Shared resources that apply simultaneously or independently on distributed signal to plug-in analyzers. Operational tools that increase measurement efficiency and reliability. General-purpose analysis for monitoring and result tracking. Specifications: Signal sources Front END RECORDER/Player Plug in Analyzers Time Domain Analysis - TDA Fast Fourier Transform analysis - FFT Constant Band Order Tracking Add-on (CBT) Diagnostic Add-on (FFTDiag) Synchronous Order Analysis (SOA) Diagnostic Add-on (SOADiag) 1/n octave constant percentage band filter analysis - OCT Overall acoustics sound level meter - OVA Options Instantaneous angular Velocity Converter (IVC) Angular sampling (A-Samp) Virtual inputs (VIn) Virtual parameter (VDC) DSC DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY Description: DSC7020 is the high-end versatile model which achieves high sensitivity, high resolution, the increased measurement range up to 3.5 times compared to the existing tools, and the dramatically increased basic performance. DSC7020 is suitable for the widest application range including the measurement and analysis of the weak transitions, low mass samples, and safety evaluation tests. Specifications: Model DSC7020 - Auto Sampler Unit Temperature Range - 170 to 725°C Measurement Range - ±350 mW Sensitivity - 0.2 µW Scan Rate - 0.01 to 100°C/min Number of Samples - Max. 50nos Parameters Obtained: Thermal transitions of polymers,Oxidative stability, Safety Screening, Drug analysis, General chemical analysis, melting points, Liquid crystals Limitations: No films can be tested, only liquids and solids are allowed. Melting point of the material should be below 700°C. Weight of the sample should know and it should be below 10gms.
Major Research Project: Case Study of Value Education Programme of Rishi Vidyalaya Gurukulum (2003-2004) - NCERT, New Delhi.
Principal Investigator: Dr. R. Siva Prasad
Minor research project: The Impact of In-service Training Programmes on the Performance of Primary School Teachers" UGC unassigned grant for 2002-2003.
Principal Investigator: Dr. M Prabhakara Rao
Publication of Books and Self Instructional Course material - 20
Publication and Presentation of papers - 53 3. M.Ed. Dissertations - 47